Anesthesia Review

ACE 18A 2021

Kawasaki Disease

Treatment of Bronchospasm

Superior Hypogastric Plexus

Pulmonary Hypertension

Mechanism Example Adverse Effects
Direct relaxation of smooth muscle Nitric Oxide Toxicity from production of NO2 and methemoglobin
Prostocyclin receptor stimulation Iloprost Systemic vascular effects
Prostocyclin receptor stimulation Epoprostenol Flushing and hypotension
Calcium channel blocker Nifedipine Hypotension
Endothelin receptor blocker Bosentan Liver dysfunction
Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor Sildenafil Few
Angiotensin receptor blocker Ramipril Hypotension

Bayonet Effect

Oculocardiac Reflex

Respiratory Pressure Definitions

Pressure Definition Notes
Peak airway pressure Maximum value of the airway pressure at airway opening Influenced by airway resistance and lung/chest wall compliance. Increased with airway obstruction or decreased complaince issues
Plateau pressure Pressure that is recorded within the airway when there is NO airflow (static compliance) Only increases with worsening compliance. Good indicator of alveolar pressure. Obstruction has no effect (because no airflow)
Mean airway pressure Average airway pressure over the total ventilatory cycle This pressure affects heart-lung interactions

Myocardial Ischemia Treatment

Immune System Response

Hypertension Treatment in Pregnancy


Drug Mechanism Effect on SSEPs
Ketamine NMDA blocker (N-methyl-D-aspartate) Increases
Dexmedetomidine alpha-2 agonist Decreases
Propofol Enhances GABA-induced chloride current / GABA agonist Decreases
Xenon NMDA blocker (N-methyl-D-aspartate) Decreases
Nitrous Oxide NMDA blocker (N-methyl-D-aspartate) Decreases


Adrenal Gland

Tissue Area Hormone Released Example Function
Zona glomerulosa Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone Regulates mineral balance (Na retention)
Zona fasciculata Glucocorticoids Cortisol, Cortisone Regulates glucose metabolism
Zona reticularis Androgens Dehydroepiandrosterone Stimulates masculinization
Adrenal medulla Stress hormones Epi, Norepi Stimulates sympathetic ANS

Kussmaul Sign

Neonatal Jaundice

End Stage Liver Failure



-0, 1, 2 to each of the following:

Risks of Peripheral Nerve Injury

Conditions that decrease nicotinic acetylcholine receptors



Tocolytic Treatments

Drug Class Examples Notes
Calcium channel blockers Nifedipine most commonly used, causes hypotention
Cyclooxygenase inhibitors Indomethacin, ketorolac inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid
Beta-adrenergic receptor agonist Terbutaline selective for B2, pulmonary edema most serious adverse effect
Magnesium sulfate Magnesium Extracellular Mg competes with Ca at motor endplate